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The cornea bends light rays to give a clear image to the back of the eye (the retina), the cornea also provides protection to the eye. It is the transparent outer coating of the eyeball.


The lens is a transparent body that is behind the iris (the coloured part of the eye). The lens is elastic, and changes shape when viewing an object far away or close up.


The retina is a fine sheet of nerve tissue lining the inside of the eye. Rays of light entering the eye are focused on the retina by the cornea and lens. The retina then produces an image, which is sent to the brain via the optic nerve for interpretation. A simple analogy is of a film in a camera being developed so that pictures can be produced.


The retina consists of light-sensitive delicate tissue, and the macula can be found at the centre of the retina, where the incoming rays of light are focused. The macula is responsible for:

  • The ability to see what is straight in front of us.
  • The vision needed for detailed activities such as reading and writing.
  • The ability to see colour.


The iris surrounds the pupil and is made up of tissue that controls the size of the pupil. The iris provides the colour of your eyes.


The pupil is the dark circular hole in the centre of the iris through which we 'see'.


This is the white part of the eye and forms about 5/6 of the outer coat of the eyeball.


The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane covering the exposed front portion of the sclera.